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Types Of Counselling And Psychotherapy
The commonest query I am asked by individuals making a first enquiry about counselling is 'What type of counselling do you do?'
What is usually meant by this is, 'What sorts of problem do you supply counselling for?' Most counsellors and psychotherapists, myself included, do not concentrate on one type of problem, as all problems or difficulties affecting feelings and thinking have similarities, and mostly reply to therapy in comparable ways.
So the reply to the query 'What kinds of problem do you offer counselling for?' could be something like 'Difficulties with emotions and thinking', somewhat than specific single points like, say, 'low self-worth', or 'concern of failure'. Most counselling and psychotherapy deals with the entire particular person, and would not usually separate off one thing they're thinking or feeling or doing.
This is only a basic rule, however. There are some therapies which do specialize in explicit types of problem, typically ones which make use of a selected solution-based approach. Counselling for addictions is an obvious example, a specialism which usually entails a progressive, guided programme. Others is perhaps bereavement or consuming problems. Particular section of the population, akin to younger individuals or women, might also be recognized as teams needing a specialist approach to some extent, however on the entire these use the identical strategies as some other psychological counselling. The main distinction is perhaps that the agency has been set up to deal with that particular challenge or group, has received funding for it, and so focuses it is resources in that area. An individual counsellor or psychothearpist might deal in a particlar space because it has especially interested them, or they've performed further training in it, or probably had particular experience of the problem themselves.
What counsellors and psychotherapists mean when they communicate of different types of remedy is the distinction in the theoretical orientation of the therapist, not in the types of problem in which they specialise. There are a number or appraoches, broadly divisible into the three areas of Humanistic, Psychodynamic and Cognitve-Behavioural. Even a brief description of every type of approach and it is subdivisions is beyond the scope of this article. I will therefore limit it to the two main approaches which I make use of myself, Person Centred (a 'humanistic' approach) and Psychodynamic.
Particular person Centred Counselling and Psychotherapy
At the centre of the Person Centred approach is the concept the Counsellor is a 'guest' on the planet of the shopper's experience, with all that this implies concerning respect and trust.
The consumer is considered to be essentially trustworthy, that he or she knows somewhere, by some means, what they want, and that they have a desire for growth. The counsellor may help carry these into awareness and help the consumer to utilise them.
One other central concept is 'conditions of worth'. Situations are imposed early in life by which a person measures their own value, how settle forable or unacceptable they are. A simple example may be 'Don't ever be indignant, or you may be an unpleasant, shameful particular person, and you will not be loved.' The message this carries might be something like 'If I am angry it means I'm worthless, therefore I mustn't ever be angry.' The person will inevitably feel angry, possibly regularly, and conclude from this that they have to therefore be valueless, ugly, shameful. One other is likely to be 'In case you don't do well academically, it means you might be stupid and you'll be a failure in life'. This form of condition will tend to stay with the particular person indefinitely, and she or he might need been struggling for years to live up to what could be impossible circumstances of worth. If this sort of internal conviction is dropped at light, and it is roots understood totally, it is likely to be that the individual can see that it's not truly true, it's been put there by others, and my be able to move away from it.
The Particular person Centred Counsellor makes an attempt to be 'with' the client as a type of companion. The Counsellor respecting and accepting the individual, whatever they are like, will lead to the individual him or herself coming to feel that she or he truly is settle forable, and coming into contact with a more genuine, 'organismic' self which has always been there indirectly, but been hidden. They may then develop into more real, less preoccupied with appearances and facades, or living as much as the expectations of others.They may value their own emotions more, constructive or negative. They could start to take pleasure in their experience of the moment. They may value others more, and luxuriate in regarding them, somewhat than feeling oppressed, shy, inferior.
The Counsellor achieves this by making a climate of acceptance within which the consumer can find him or herself. Sure therapeutic circumstances facilitate this, circumstances laid down by the founder of this approach, Carl Rogers. These embrace:
The therapist's genuineness, or authenticity. This cannot be just acted, it needs to be real or it will be priceless.
Total acceptance of the consumer, and positive regard for them, no matter how they seem to be.
'Empathic understanding', the therapist really understanding what the consumer is saying, and, further, showing the shopper that their emotions have been understood.
Psychodynamic Counselling and Psychotherapy
Psychodynamic, or Psychoanalytic, therapy makes an attempt to foster an interaction which contains unconscious components of the client. An entire lifetime's experience, most powerfully what the particular person has learned from his or her first relationships in early childhood, will decide the way in which the shopper relates to others. This will come out in some type within the therapeutic relationship too, and the therapist needs to be aware of what forces and influences could also be at work within the client.
This approach does not include that concept of 'free will'. It doesn't see our thinking, feeling and decision making as the results of conscious awareness, but because the outcomes of many forces which are operating beneath conscious awareness. The particular person is appearing and relating to others largely as the end result of the instincts they are born with, along with what they have learned about themselves, largely by means of the nature of their close relationships in early life.
The actual 'personality' is formed within the crucible of this early experience. If, for instance, the main carer of the child has not fed her properly, this can be laid down in as an anxiety. This may be simply about being fed, about getting enough to eat, or it might be prolonged by the infant into associated things, akin to trust (they have learned not to trust that meals, or the carer, might be there when needed), or insecurity about life basically, or a feeling of there at all times being something lacking. A consequence might be overeating, say, or greed in different methods, for items, or neediness, anxious want for the presence of others, or one other. This is one example. There are myriad sorts of operations of this variety in the psyche, forming from start, with every kind of subtleties and variations. They are nearly all laid down in a stage of the person which shouldn't be accessible to the conscious mind, and are acted out unconsciously.
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